# Source code for bruges.transform.nmo

```
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Normal moveout.
© 2017 Leo Uieda, licensed BSD 3-clause license.
https://github.com/seg/tutorials-2017/tree/master/1702_Step_by_step_NMO
"""
import numpy as np
from scipy.interpolate import CubicSpline
[docs]def reflection_time(t0, x, vnmo):
"""
Calculate the travel-time of a reflected wave. Doesn't consider
refractions or changes in velocity.
The units must be consistent. E.g., if t0 is seconds and
x is metres, vnmo must be m/s.
Args:
t0 (float): The 0-offset (normal incidence) travel-time.
x (float): The offset of the receiver.
vnmo (float): The NMO velocity.
Returns:
t (float): The reflection travel-time.
"""
t = np.sqrt(t0**2 + x**2/vnmo**2)
return t
[docs]def sample_trace(trace, time, dt):
"""
Sample an amplitude at a given time using interpolation.
Args:
trace (1D array): Array containing the amplitudes of a single trace.
time (float): The time at which I want to sample the amplitude.
dt (float): The sampling interval.
Returns:
amplitude (float or None): The interpolated amplitude. Will be None
if *time* is beyond the end of the trace or if there are fewer than
two points between *time* and the end.
"""
# Use floor to get the index that is right before our desired time.
before = int(np.floor(time/dt))
N = trace.size
# Use the 4 samples around time to interpolate
samples = np.arange(before - 1, before + 3)
if any(samples < 0) or any(samples >= N):
amplitude = None
else:
times = dt * samples
amps = trace[samples]
interpolator = CubicSpline(times, amps)
amplitude = interpolator(time)
return amplitude
[docs]def nmo_correction(cmp, dt, offsets, velocities):
"""
Performs NMO correction on the given CMP.
The units must be consistent. E.g., if dt is seconds and
offsets is meters, velocities must be m/s.
Args:
cmp (ndarray): The 2D array CMP gather that we want to correct.
dt (float): The sampling interval.
offsets (ndarray): A 1D array with the offset of each trace in the CMP.
velocities (ndarray): A 1D array with the NMO velocity for each time.
Should have the same number of elements as the CMP has samples.
Returns:
ndrray: The NMO corrected gather.
"""
nmo = np.zeros_like(cmp)
nsamples = cmp.shape[0]
times = np.arange(0, nsamples*dt, dt)
for i, t0 in enumerate(times):
for j, x in enumerate(offsets):
t = reflection_time(t0, x, velocities[i])
amplitude = sample_trace(cmp[:, j], t, dt)
# If the time t is outside of the CMP time range,
# amplitude will be None.
if amplitude is not None:
nmo[i, j] = amplitude
return nmo
```